Abstract Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers Find sex now Somers New York the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of subjects boys and girlsaged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire.
Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing 4.
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Conclusion The Hitterdal MN wife swapping of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour.
The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time. Peer Review reports Background Tobacco use is a major public health concern, not only because of its Dating women alone Westland Michigan impact on the health of both smokers and non-smokers, but because it is one of the preventable causes of morbidity and mortality.
Smoking is a lifestyle factor that is strongly associated with certain forms of cancer [ 1 — 4 ] and cardiovascular diseases [ 256 ].
Internationally, public awareness and beliefs about the health risks of smoking have increased considerably, especially among adolescents and this was Girl fucked Great Falls in declining smoking rates in numerous developed countries [ 7 ]. However, in developing countries cigarette smoking is likely to increase tremendously in the next two decades as the tobacco industry concentrates its marketing on youth [ 8 ].
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Indigenous knowledge, practice and traditional beliefs are sometimes also blamed for this escalating behaviour in the developing countries [ 9 ]. There is an increasing public awareness of health risks of tobacco products usage which is reflected in the declining rate of cigarette smoking in the developed countries, while in developing countries the rate is increasing [ 10 — 12 ]. For Liechtenstein ladies porn, tobacco consumption, amongst adolescents in South Africa, that began in the s, has peaked up in the last Bloomingburg NY adult personals of the twentieth century [ 13 ].
InMartin et al. Subsequently, Reddy et al. About 1. This trend is indeed worrying especially with an increase of incidents of smokers among younger children of which little is Horny women in Pylesville, MD about their behaviour, beliefs and Free sex chat quebec canada of tobacco products given the fact Lowell IN adult swingers these communities are traditionally known to be conservative.
This study therefore, was intended to investigate the current smoking behaviour among rural South African children aged 11 to 18 years who are part of the ongoing Ellisras Longitudinal Study cross-sectionally. Methods Geographical area Ellisras is a deep rural area situated within the north-western area of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The population is about 50, residing in 42 settlements [ Mature woman adult personal smokers lets smoke ].
The Iscor coal mine, Matimba and Medupi electricity power stations are the major sources of employment for many of the Ellisras residents, whereas the remaining workforce is involved in subsistence farming and cattle rearing, while the minority is in education and civil services. Unemployment, poverty and low-life expectancy seem to play a ificant role in the rural South African population of which Ellisras rural area people are not an exception [ 1819 ].
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Schools in these villages are characterized by poor infra-structure, lack of teaching and learning resources like laboratories and libraries and lack of recreational and health facilities [ 20 ]. These schools are under-performing in terms of literacy and mathematics [ 21 — 23 ].
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In brief, the study was undertaken at 22 schools 10 pre-schools and 12 Sex dating in Slemp schools. The selection was done randomly from 68 schools within the Ellisras area. Birth records were obtained from the principals of each school. Only those records that were verified against health clinic records were used to determine the age of each potential participant.
Each of the 22 selected schools was ased a grade with the expectation that most of the children in a particular age category i.
A total of children boys and girls aged between 11 to 18 years who are part of the ELS participated in the study during the period 1 March to 3 May from the boys and girls who participated in the anthropometric measurements of November The Ethics Committee of the South African Medical Research Council granted ethical approval prior to the survey and the parents or guardians provided Thick pussy licker consent.
The children ed the assent form after receiving verbal assent from the project principal investigator. In these studies perceptions regarding teachers and other role models, who use tobacco products, attitudes based on exposure to the media and experimentation with tobacco products were thoroughly investigated. Based on the definition of tobacco products, a list of concepts was developed.
Questions addressing relevant concepts knowledge, practice, attitudes, beliefs and advertisement of the present study were extracted from the ly validated questionnaire. An expert Ladies looking nsa AL Burkville 36752 was then convened to recommend which questions should be included in the knowledge, practices, attitudes and beliefs concepts.
The principal investigator with the help of the Ellisras local teachers translated the questionnaire from English to the two local spoken languages Northern Sotho and Setswana and then translated back to English. The translation back to English showed no disparity with the Northern Sotho and Tswana languages Ellisras rural area local language.
Definition of concepts A current smoker was defined as anyone who smoked at least one cigarette or any other type of Bored today looking for hispanic or Waterville female product like pipe, snuff, home-made tobacco or indigenous tobacco per day at the time of survey. Those who never smoked a tobacco product at the time of the survey were considered non smokers. The attitude of the children's relatives and acquaintances towards cigarette smoking were measured indirectly by asking the children if their relatives and acquaintances allow people to smoke freely in their presence.
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In the interview, considerable participants were asked how strongly they believed in certain statements regarding smoking habits, attitudes and their beliefs on tobacco products. Quality control All selected field workers underwent intensive training Blk man for new years arab amateur womens fun one week prior to the survey. This was a cross-sectional study. Analyses were run for descriptive statistics by gender and age.
Chi-squared tests were used to compare sets of nominal data that had larger frequency counts, whereas the Fisher's exact test was used when frequency cells Houston mature sex small less than five Adult dating LA Houma 70364 ten between genders.
Logistic Regression analysis was applied to determine the association between tobacco products use as well as their beliefs and attitudes. Table 1 presents prevalence of tobacco usage by age group and gender.
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The prevalence of cigarette smoking increased with increasing age ranged from 4. No Ellisras rural girls aged 11 to 18 years smoked cigarette. Really want a Warren Michigan shower prevalence of snuff usage ranged between 0.
There was no ificant difference between the prevalence of pipe and snuff usage between boys and girls through out the age range Table 1. Table 1 Prevalence of smoking Housewives looking real sex CA Lincoln 95648 age group and gender for Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years Full size table Table 2 presents frequency and percentage frequency for positive responses on beliefs, habits and knowledge of home made usage of tobacco products for Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years.
The use of tobacco product among the Ellisras rural children family circle as reported by boys ranged from 5.
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Nine percent 9. For both boys and girls there was Married woman want nsa Farmington effect on the perception of smoking when observing TV stars, men and women smoking.
Fifty point eight percent There was no ificant difference in the proportion of boys and girls who regarded men The use of tobacco products and the rights of using tobacco products were ificantly associated OR 2.
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The majority of children started smoking around the age of seven years. Figure 2 presents the amount of tobacco products used by Ellisras rural boys aged 11 Wellington wanted in area 18 years.
Figure 3 presents the influential people in the use of tobacco product among the Ellisras rural children by age group. Figure 1.