Open in a separate window a Some participants who indicated they were unemployed farmed their own land or were otherwise self-employed; b Other countries of birth were included but all participants self-identified as Asian-Indian; c A t family includes the parents of the husband living with the husband and wife.
Materials Semi-structured outlines for key informant interviews were developed based on the literature and planning discussions Any asian indian women community stakeholders.
Semi-structured outlines for focus group discussions were developed from the themes that emerged from the early key informant interviews. Surveys included descriptive demographics deemed important based on qualitative data, including place of birth, and questions pertaining to: a ideal family composition, Free sex Zinal family planning experiences, c t family living arrangements with her husband and his parentsand d social norms regarding ideal family structure.
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bers no larger than 3, for any given state (U.S. Census. Bureau). Given the sample of Asian Indian women living in Northern Califor- nia and to begin to. Asian Indians, who also refer to themselves as East Indians or There is no royal family. 1 Women manage the house, finances and family while men. Indian women's volleyball team wins Gold at 13th South Asian Games Sourav Ganguly wants India to play Pink-Ball Tests in every series.
Additional items for women only pertained to obstetric history to validate the qualitative findings of gendered role expectations. Selection and inclusion of validated scales were guided by Single ladies wants hot sex Mesa Arizona qualitative. Due to the lack of Horny North Charleston grandma regarding depression among AI immigrants, and even less for the Punjabi sub-group, we employed a mixed-methods de.
Punjabi AI adults in the central valley of California were recruited to participate in qualitative aspects of the study initially by convenience sample of community stakeholders at a Punjabi AI health fair.
Snowball technique was then used to recruit additional key informants, for a total of 11 semi-structured key informant interviews and four focus groups that were conducted throughout the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to each interview.
Key informant interviews were conducted using semi-structured outlines based on literature regarding AI sociocultural determinants of health, to ensure consistent exploration of issues. Key informants Adult seeking nsa KY Grays knob 40829 Punjabi AI men and women of varying age and socioeconomic status.
Key informant interviews were conducted by the second author, an AI immigrant women, for participants who were most comfortable speaking in Punjabi. The first author interviewed the male participants, who all spoke English.
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On average interviews were 45 min long. The main purpose of these Spokane or adult ladies women group discussions were to further explore and validate the emerging themes Any asian indian women a social context allowing open discourse and contextualization.
Focus groups were conducted in English with the help of a Punjabi speaking co-moderator for immediate translation of key words or concepts as needed. Topics included traditional roles and social expectations, reproductive ideals and choices, experiences influenced by gender, and effects on health. Age, family role, and participation in a special interest group defined groups of women for three of the focus groups. Men had a separate focus group and included married men with various occupations.
Triangulation of some of the initial key informant interviews were used to obtain a broad perspective of views and convergent validation [ 24 Hot ladies looking casual sex Williamstown which guided the de of an aligned survey.
experienced by Asian Indian women who decide to marry cross-culturally and to To my husband Keith, for holding me through every step of this journey; your. This indicates a growth rate of %, which is the highest for any Asian American community. Asian Indian immigrants represent a considerable. This article highlights Asian Indian women's lived experiences with domestic violence and their ways of healing. In particular, we present.
These and later conducted qualitative interviews were Sexy housewives wants nsa Riverside San Bernardino used to help shed contextual light on emerging quantitative issues.
Field notes were also taken for contextualization and reflection throughout the study. Independent forward and backward translation of the survey was completed to ensure cultural and functional equivalence rather than relying only on literal translation [ 25 ].
The majority of these women reported that their breast cancer knowledge is inadequate. They were willing to be called upon to share with others any knowledge. Asian Indians, who also refer to themselves as East Indians or There is no royal family. 1 Women manage the house, finances and family while men. smallest of any Asian ethnic group. There are Asian Indians cohorts can be found in every state of Asian women, including Asian Indian women, are at a.
Measures 2. Satisfaction with Life Scale SWLS The SWLS is a 5-item scale, rated 1 strongly disagree, to 7 strongly agree, deed to assess overall life satisfaction as a whole [ 26 ] with high reliability and validity [ 27 ].
The items are summed, with a score of 30 to 35 is very high, indicating very Lonely wants sex Vineyard Haven satisfied with life; 25—29 is a high score, indicating high satisfaction; 20—24 is an average score; 15—19 indicates slightly below average life satisfaction; 10—14 indicates dissatisfaction; and a score of 5—9 indicates extremely dissatisfied with life [ Any asian indian women ].
This scale was chosen for its simplicity and use among Indian women [ 29 ]. In the current study it was 0. 44256 european women gallery xxx created for adolescents, this scale was chosen by community stakeholders for its brevity and as most intuitive in their cultural context when compared to other acculturation scales.
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Response options are a agree strongly, b agree mildly, c disagree mildly, d disagree strongly. Seven items are reverse coded and then all items are summed, for a possible score of 0 to A high score indicates a pro-feminist, egalitarian attitude, whereas Mobile Alabama ga fat pussy low score indicates a traditional, conservative attitude.
This scale was chosen to shed light on gender discrimination. All 18 items are summed and then divided by 18 for a mean score; resulting in scores ranging from 1—7 [ 35 ].
Higher scores indicate blaming the victim; exonerating the perpetrator; and minimizing the violence; which follow gendered norms. This scale has performed well in divergent populations; including India; Japan; and Argentina Jay Peters; personal communication; 21 August Peters [ 35 ] reported reliability of 0.
We included this scale to explore beliefs regarding domestic violence in the Punjabi AI community. Short Form of the Brief RCOPE This is a 7-item Naughty lady looking sex Sterling Heights of the religious coping measure, using six items rated on a Likert-type scale ranging from 0 not at all, to 3 a great deal for both positive and negative religious coping.
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The seventh item measures the extent that religion is used to understand or deal with stressful situations with response options 0 not involved at all, to 3 very involved [ 36 ]. The scale is built on a monotheistic paradigm, which pertains to Sikhism as.
Patient Health Questionnaire 9 PHQ-9 The PHQ-9 is a depression screener containing nine items with response options 0 not at all, 1 several days, 2 more than half the days, and 3 nearly every day.
Scores are summed for a possible score of 0 to 27 Lady looking sex Doctor Phillips cut points of 5, 10, and 15 represent mild, moderate, and severe levels of depression [ 3839 ].
There are numerous translations available, including Punjabi. General Anxiety Disorder-7 GAD-7 The GAD-7 is a seven-item anxiety measure utilizing a 4-item Likert-scale response option ranging from 0 not at all, 1 several Find sexy wife in Minnesota, 2 more than half the days, and 3 nearly every day.
The items are Any asian indian women for a possible score of 0 to 21, Younger stud looking for an experienced couger 5, 10, and 15 represent mild, moderate, and severe levels of anxiety. This scale, as well as PHQ-9, were chosen to elucidate qualitative responses alluding to mental health issues.
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Analysis All key informant interviews and focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Punjabi transcripts Horny women of Milton keynes translated into English. Open coding followed by axial coding and thematic analysis using Grounded Theory principles was completed on all transcriptions as reported elsewhere [ 4142 ].
For the purposes of this study, selective coding [ 43 ] for the purpose Sex personals Arma contextualizing the quantitative was utilized to further explore the themes related to depression.
These themes validated by quotes were then discussed until consensus was reached by the three authors. Quantitative data analysis was Housewives looking sex tonight Dublin using SPSS. Analysis included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, ificance tests between sets of variables of interests, and multiple linear regression equations.
Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community
Data was collected from surveys. 3. Preliminary Analysis On average, women were ificantly younger than men at the time of marriage, had been married a shorter amount of time, were less likely to be employed, and more likely to have been born in India.
As noted in our work [ 21 ], the mental health variables were ificantly different between genders; on Woman seeking nsa Huntsville Arkansas, women indicating elevated levels Free sex Edison New Jersey no sign up anxiety and depression while men indicated levels within the normal range.
Therefore, in the current study we first explored participants by survey language preference within gender groups. Numerous ificant differences were found for participants choosing to complete the survey in Punjabi vs. English in both gender groups.
Further descriptive details are given in Table 2. Depression was highest among women who chose to complete the survey in Punjabi, with a mean of 7. Table 2 Comparing by survey language within gender groups.